Feeding behaviour and nutritional status of populations

A.Y. 2020/2021
6
Max ECTS
48
Overall hours
SSD
BIO/05 BIO/07
Language
Italian
Learning objectives
The course aim to provide the student with the scientific and cultural tools to understand and interpret the feeding behavior of modern humans in the light of their evolutionary history and of related transformations of their relationships with the environment.
Expected learning outcomes
At the end of the course, students should have acquired the technical-scientific notions required to understand the effect of alimentary habits on body composition. In addition, the student should have acquired the competencies necessary to understand and to apply the methods for body composition and nutritional state assessment as well as to understand the principles for the elaboration of tailored dietary plans aimed to reach and maintain an ideal body composition.
Course syllabus and organization

Single session

Responsible
Lesson period
Second semester
Synchronous distance teaching via MS Teams. Audio-video records of lectures available in streaming in asynchronous mode through both MS Teams and and Ariel. PowerPoint presentations available through Ariel. Interactive discussions with the teachers as Ariel chats. The final exam is organized as a written report on a topic proposed by the teacher plus a distance oral examination via MS Teams.
Course syllabus
Principles for the analysis of dietary needs and for the elaboration of tailored diet plans. From nutrition to a tailored diet: nutritional and dietetic aspects of alimentation. The alimentary anamnesis tool. Elaboration of diet plans for healthy individuals. The use of sodium in meals. Water in diets, metabolic water and hydric balance. Alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverages. Critical issues related to specific physiological conditions (childhood, adolescence, pregnancy, breastfeeding, menopause, and elderly). Prevention and dietetic treatment of malnutrition in elderly individuals. Alimentary education: aims, strategies, WHO actions for NCDs prevention and control; National Plan of Prevention and nutritional survey system in Italy. DIETOTHERAPY: prevention and dietetic treatment of digestive system disorders (reflux, dyspepsia, meteorism, constipation). Diet and Mediterranean gastronomy in disease prevention. Tutorials of applied dietetics: rational use of food composition tables and LARN for nutritional evaluation and elaboration of dietetic plans.
Models for the description of body composition. Five-level model and patterns of body compartmentation. The reference man. Relationships among compartments at different organization levels. Use of regression analysis in the development of predictive equations. Reference methods in body composition assessment. Direct and indirect methods. Laboratory and field methods. Hydrodensitometry, air plethysmography, hydrometry and dilution methods, dual-energy X-ray densitometry (DEXA). Direct methods for Na and K determination. In vivo neutron activation analysis (IVNA). Bioimpedentiometry and bioimpedance vector analysis (BIVA). Computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic resonance spectrometry (MRS). Anthropometry and plicometry. Methods for the assessment of energy expenditure. Components of energy expenditure: basal metabolism, diet-induced thermogenesis, activity-induced thermogenesis. Direct calorimetry, and indirect calorimetry methods. Non-calorimetric methods. Doubly labelled water methods. Podometry and accelerometry. Metabolic holters. Methods for the assessment of energy intake. 24-h recall, alimentary diary, and food frequency questionnaire. Energy needs and human evolution. Metabolic adaptation to physical activity.
Prerequisites for admission
A good knowledge of food chemistry, general biochemistry and metabolism, histology, anatomy and general physiology, as well as of the topics covered by the course of Biology of Nutrition is mandatory.
Teaching methods
In the absence of limitations due to social distancing caused by sanitary emergence conditions, the exam is written, consisting in a set of open questions aimed to assess the ability of the student to handle the various topics covered by the course. Students may be asked to solve simple problems. Answers can be provided in English, if wished. Allowed time is usually 2 hours. The exam is organized in two parts that must be accomplished in the same test. Both parts must receive a positive evaluation in order to pass the examination. Partial exams during the teaching semester for students attending the course are not planned.
Teaching Resources
LARN 2014 as well as tables and databanks dealing with food composition. Videoprojected material, scientific papers and other materials will be made partially available through the Ariel portal of the University.
Assessment methods and Criteria
In the absence of limitations due to social distancing caused by sanitary emergence conditions, the final exam is written, consisting in a set of open questions aimed to assess the ability of the student to handle the various topics covered by the course. Students may be asked to solve simple problems. Answers can be provided in English, if wished. Allowed time is usually 2 hours. The exam is organized in two parts that must be accomplished in the same test. Both parts must receive a positive evaluation in order to pass the examination. Partial exams during the teaching semester for students attending the course are not planned.
BIO/05 - ZOOLOGY - University credits: 0
BIO/07 - ECOLOGY - University credits: 0
Lessons: 48 hours
Professor(s)
Reception:
Monday, 08:30-12:30 (appointment required)
Dept. Biosciences, via Celoria 26, bldg C - floor 5