Instrumentation applied to medicine

A.Y. 2020/2021
Overall hours
Learning objectives
Introduction to the applications of physics in the field of medicine, with particular reference to both the diagnostic and therapeutic use of ionizing radiation.
Expected learning outcomes
At the end of the course, student will have acquired the following knowledge
· Main features of Radiotherapy equipments
· Radiation beams generation for external radiotherapy and brachytherapy
· Beams properties and clinical dosimetry, for both photon and electron beams
· Dose calculation and dose distribution by treatment planning systems dedicated to radiotherapy.
· Quality control for radiotherapy equipments
· Imaging devices in nuclear medicine (SPECT, PET).
· Radionuclide for nuclear medicine imaging
· Filtering and Reconstruction techniques for tomographic imaging
· Planar and tomographic quality controls
· Absorbed dose calculation in nuclear medicine application (internal dosimetry).
Course syllabus and organization

Single session

Lesson period
First semester
The course will be delivered entirely remotely in case of travel restrictions due to Covid-19. In this case, the lectures will be offered in virtual classrooms (Microsoft Teams platform) in synchronous connection, with the opportunity of real-time interaction between the students and the teacher.
Course syllabus
· Characteristics and functionality of the Radiotherapy equipment
· Production of radiation beams for teletherapy and brachytherapy equipment
· Characterization of the bundles and clinical dosimetry
· Calculation of doses and treatment plans
· Equipment quality checks
Nuclear medicine
· Image detection systems in nuclear medicine (SPECT, PET)
· Choice of radionuclides for the clinical image
· Reconstruction of tomographic images and filtering techniques
· Quality checks on planar and tomographic systems
· Calculation of the absorbed dose in nuclear medicine (elements of internal dosimetry)
Prerequisites for admission
1. Interaction of radiation with matter
2. Radioactive decays
3. Basic concepts of gamma spectrometry
4. Basic concepts of dosimetry
Teaching methods
Frontal lessons.The didactic method adopted includes lectures and one or two sessions of absolute and relative dose measurements for a linear accelerator of radiotherapy, as well as a session in which a typical software system dedicated to planning radiotherapy treatments with photons is presented. Attendance is strongly recommended due to the specificity of the topics.
Teaching Resources
1. The Physics of radiation therapy, F.M. Khan, third edition, Lippincott Williams&Wilkins
2. La fisica in medicina nucleare, M. Marengo, eds Patron
3. PET, Physics, Instrumentation and Scanners. M. E. Phelps
4. Slides of the course
5. Selected scientific publications on specific topics
Assessment methods and Criteria
The learning verification method consists of an oral exam, with the score in thirtieths, in which the student will have to present in depth one of the topics covered during the course. Subsequently, through targeted questions, the knowledge and ability to describe the physics underlying the functioning of radiotherapy and nuclear medicine equipment, as well as dose release in patients and image formation will be assessed.
The general, the duration of the exam is about 45 minutes.
FIS/07 - APPLIED PHYSICS - University credits: 6
Lessons: 42 hours
Professor: Pignoli Emanuele