Statistic, epidemiology and history of health

A.Y. 2020/2021
7
Max ECTS
59.5
Overall hours
SSD
MED/01 MED/02 MED/42
Language
Italian
Learning objectives
Teaching aims to provide students with the basics of:
- acquire advanced knowledge of the historical dimension of medicine, in order to better understand the evolution of the professional figures of the health professional and the doctor-surgeon;
- to acquire knowledge to reflect on "human facts", generally regarded as "past", whose knowledge represents the attempt to provoke the encounter between two planes of humanity: the past experienced by the men of yeslsea and the present in which the effort intended to evoke this past develops, so that the man of the future benefits from it;
- acquire the statistical knowledge necessary to be able to develop a data set and draw up a reporting paper with an indication of the analyses carried out and the results achieved for research and/or planning of management activities of a health facility;
- to demonstrate and understand the purposes of Epidemiology, investigative methods, and their fields of application.
Expected learning outcomes
- have advanced knowledge of the historical dimension of medicine so as to be able to make critical reflections on the future of the profession
- have acquired the necessary statistical knowledge to be able to elaborate a set of data and draw up a report document indicating the analyzes carried out and the results achieved
- demonstrate and understand the aims of the Epidemiology, the methods of investigation, and the relative fields of application.
Course syllabus and organization

Single session

The lessons will be held on the Microsoft TEAMS platform and can be followed both synchronously on the basis of the first semester timetable and asynchronously because they will be recorded and made available to students on the same platform.
Prerequisites for admission
No prior knowledge required
Assessment methods and Criteria
The assessment of learning outcomes consists of a written test, taking place during specific exam sessions, as per the Rules. The test includes multiple choice questions.
All the modules comprised in the teaching contribute to determining the final mark, expressed on a scale of 30 as the weighted average of the marks obtained for each module.
No intermediate or early exam sessions are planned.
Teaching materials or notes are not allowed for consultation during testing.
The results are published on the ARIEL website of the course of study.
The Teacher in charge of the teaching provides the final verbalization according to the UNIMI model. The student is asked to accept the grade and has the opportunity to view the evidence, discuss the result and possibly repeat the exam in subsequent appeals.
Medical statistics
Course syllabus
Reliability of a measure
∙ Reliability and its components
∙ Systematic error and casual error
Variability
Between-subjects and within-subjects variability
Descriptive statistics
∙ Graphs
∙ Location, scale, and shape of a frequency distribution
∙ Measures of location and scale
∙ Accuracy and precision of a measure
∙ Quantiles and reference limits
∙ Correlation coefficient and Kappa statistic
Gaussian model
∙ Probability of events on the population within the Gaussian model
∙ How to model the error with a Gaussian model
Screening programs
∙ Events
∙ Probability: concept
∙ Probability of an event: algebra
∙ Basics of probability
∙ Screening programs: why
∙ True and false positives, true and false negatives
∙ Sensitivity and specificity of a diagnostic tool
∙ Positive (negative) predictive values
∙ Likelihood ratio: positive and negative
∙ Pre-test and post-test probabilities
∙ Bayes theorem
Inference
∙ Sampling variability
∙ Population and sample
∙ Estimate of a population parameter with sampling quantities
Sampling distribution
∙ The central limit theorem and the distribution of a sampling quantity
∙ Standard error
Confidence interval
∙ Definition and meaning
∙ Formulas
Hypothesis testing
∙ First type and second type errors and power of a test
∙ Sample size calculation
∙ Clinical statistics and clinical relevance
∙ Hypothesis testing on a population mean
Deterministic and probabilistic models
∙ Deterministic and probabilistic models: differences
∙ Simple linear regression model: interpretation and parameters
Hypothesis testing on the parameters of a simple linear regression model
Teaching methods
The teaching is provided through frontal classroom lessons, scheduled according to a timetable published on the ARIEL website of the course of study.
At the end of the course and before enrolling in the exam, the student makes a judgment with respect to the teaching provided which includes an integrated course assessment and an assessment of the teaching module. It takes into account both general aspects (classrooms, hours) and specific aspects (teacher punctuality and availability, teaching materials, interest in the subject, etc.). The assessment is expressed through a questionnaire available online according to a model of Athens. The quantitative and qualitative data are the subject of annual discussion in the Parite Commission and the Educational College and a point of observation by the President and the AQ Referent in order to promote better actions in accordance with the principles of the AVA process.
Teaching Resources
- M. Pagano e K. Gauvreau Biostatistica (2ª edizione) Editore: Idelson-Gnocchi 2003;
- M. Bland Statistica medica (Idee & strumenti) Editore: Apogeo 2019;
JF. Jekel, DL. Katz, JG. Elmore, DMG. Wild Epidemiologia Biostatistica e Medicina Preventiva (3ª edizione) Editore: Masson 2009
Medical history
Course syllabus
- The origins and meaning of Medicine and the History of Medicine
- Study and research sources: Medicine in ancient Greece and Rome. Medieval Medicine; Knowing the body:
Renaissance and Animated Anatomy. Iatrophysics and Iatrochemistry. Microscopic anatomy.
- Enlightenment and public health: occupational diseases, hygiene and preventive medicine, vaccine prophylaxis,
orthopedics, humanitarian treatment of the mentally ill persons.
- The birth of Clinics and its tools: semeiotics, diagnostics and therapy; Surgery problems and their solution:
analgesia, anesthesia, asepsis and antisepsis. Cell theory and microbiology.
- The 20th century: new concepts, tools and therapies; Evolution and transformation of hospitals.
- Elements of the history of public health in Lombardy
Teaching methods
The teaching is provided through frontal classroom lessons, scheduled according to a timetable published on the ARIEL website of the course of study.
At the end of the course and before enrolling in the exam, the student makes a judgment with respect to the teaching provided which includes an integrated course assessment and an assessment of the teaching module. It takes into account both general aspects (classrooms, hours) and specific aspects (teacher punctuality and availability, teaching materials, interest in the subject, etc.). The assessment is expressed through a questionnaire available online according to a model of Athens. The quantitative and qualitative data are the subject of annual discussion in the Parite Commission and the Educational College and a point of observation by the President and the AQ Referent in order to promote better actions in accordance with the principles of the AVA process.
Teaching Resources
. Porro A., Franchini A.F., Cristini C., Galimberti P.M. Lorusso L., Falconi B., Lezioni Di Storia Della Medicina. Gli Strumenti 3, Rudiano, Gam, 2013.
- Porro A., Cristini C., Falconi B., Franchini A.F., Galimberti P.M., Lorusso L., Lezioni Di Storia Della Medicina 2, -Rudiano, Gam, 2011.
- Porro A., Falconi B., Franchini A.F. Lezioni Di Storia Della Medicina 1, Rudiano, Gam Editrice, 2009.
Porro A., Storia Della Medicina 1 (Fino Al Xix Secolo). In Appendice: Storia Dell'odontoiatria, Rudiano, Gam Editrice, 2009.
- Belloni L., Per La Storia Della Medicina, Sala Bolognese, Forni, 1990.
Hygiene and public health
Course syllabus
. Meaning and use of the epidemiological method: from data analysis to programming and evaluation within the health system.

2. Use of current health data in epidemiology.
- Characteristics of current data sources.
- Main sources of health data.
- The indicators: meaning and use.
- Methodological aspects related to the use of administrative data for planning and research.
- Guided analysis of current health data.

3. Frequency measures: ratios, proportions, rates;
- Concept of prevalence, incidence, density of incidence, cumulative incidence standardization of rates

4. Study plans and their application for need assessment, analysis of care problems, assessment of the quality of care.
- Ecological (or correlation) studies and their application: the search for differences.
- Prevalence studies and their application.
- Incidence studies and their application. Case control studies and their application. Experimental studies.

5. Association and impact measures: relative risk, odds ratio, risk attributable as absolute measure and as relative measure

6. Random and systematic error in Epidemiology. The confusion

7. Studies to evaluate the quality of health care
- The assessment of needs.
- Assessment of organizational aspects in the delivery of health care services.
- Evaluation of the results.
Teaching methods
The teaching is provided through frontal classroom lessons, scheduled according to a timetable published on the ARIEL website of the course of study.
At the end of the course and before enrolling in the exam, the student makes a judgment with respect to the teaching provided which includes an integrated course assessment and an assessment of the teaching module. It takes into account both general aspects (classrooms, hours) and specific aspects (teacher punctuality and availability, teaching materials, interest in the subject, etc.). The assessment is expressed through a questionnaire available online according to a model of Athens. The quantitative and qualitative data are the subject of annual discussion in the Parite Commission and the Educational College and a point of observation by the President and the AQ Referent in order to promote better actions in accordance with the principles of the AVA process.
Teaching Resources
Signorelli C.: Elementi di metodologia epidemiologica. SEU Roma
Hygiene and public health
MED/42 - HYGIENE AND PUBLIC HEALTH - University credits: 2
Lessons: 16 hours
Professor: Amendola Antonella
Medical history
MED/02 - MEDICAL HISTORY - University credits: 2
Lessons: 16 hours
Professor: Porro Alessandro
Medical statistics
MED/01 - MEDICAL STATISTICS - University credits: 3
Practicals: 7.5 hours
Lessons: 20 hours
Professor(s)
Reception:
For meetings, please write an email.
Campus Cascina Rosa, via A. Vanzetti, 5, 20133 Milano - room number 3 - 4
Reception:
previo appuntamento e-mail
Padiglione Centro Ipertensione - Ospedale maggiore Policlinico - 1* p.