Statistics and epidemiology

A.Y. 2020/2021
Overall hours
MED/01 MED/42
Learning objectives
Acquire the basic statistical and epidemiological knowledge necessary to be able to understand and address the issues related to the organization, research and teaching in the health sciences of prevention.
Expected learning outcomes
At the end of the course students will be able to:
· Apply basic statistical analysis to data obtained with social and epidemiological research of a health nature;
· Apply the basic statistics to assess the quality of the services provided within the health prevention disciplines;
· Evaluate the results of interventions in the field of research and health promotion;
· Understand the main basic statistical and epidemiological analyzes reported in the scientific literature.
Course syllabus and organization

Single session

The course takes place in the second semester. Lessons will be delivered remotely or in person or in mixed mode. Remote teaching will take place using the MS TEAMS platform with live mode and recording of the lessons, which will then be available to students.
The mode of delivery of the lessons will depend on the evolution of the health situation.
Prerequisites for admission
Basic algebra and elements of geometry.
Assessment methods and Criteria
Written examination with a combination of multiple-choice questions (1 right, 4 wrong answers) and small problems or toy examples with a series of questions to reply. Every question has its mark indicated in the written examination. Students who gain a final mark higher than 30 will receive a mark of 30 cum laude. A calculator and the tables of the probability distributions found in Ariel are necessary to solve the written examination. Students are allowed to fill in a form with all the formulas to keep during the examination. Results will be provided to the students via Ariel.
Medical statistics
Course syllabus
Reliability of a measure
∙ Reliability and its components
∙ Systematic error and casual error
Between-subjects and within-subjects variability
Descriptive statistics
∙ Graphs
∙ Location, scale, and shape of a frequency distribution
∙ Measures of location and scale
∙ Accuracy and precision of a measure
∙ Quantiles and reference limits
∙ Correlation coefficient and Kappa statistic
Gaussian model
∙ Probability of events on the population within the Gaussian model
∙ How to model the error with a Gaussian model
Screening programs
∙ Events
∙ Probability: concept
∙ Probability of an event: algebra
∙ Basics of probability
∙ Screening programs: why
∙ True and false positives, true and false negatives
∙ Sensitivity and specificity of a diagnostic tool
∙ Positive (negative) predictive values
∙ Likelihood ratio: positive and negative
∙ Pre-test and post-test probabilities
∙ Bayes theorem
∙ Sampling variability
∙ Population and sample
∙ Estimate of a population parameter with sampling quantities
Sampling distribution
∙ The central limit theorem and the distribution of a sampling quantity
∙ Standard error
Confidence interval
∙ Definition and meaning
∙ Formulas
Hypothesis testing
∙ First type and second type errors and power of a test
∙ Sample size calculation
∙ Clinical statistics and clinical relevance
∙ Hypothesis testing on a population mean
Deterministic and probabilistic models
∙ Deterministic and probabilistic models: differences
∙ Simple linear regression model: interpretation and parameters
∙ Hypothesis testing on the parameters of a simple linear regression model
Teaching methods
Teaching through slides and blackboard use with a problem-solving approach; practical sessions of exercises; slides and exercises available from Ariel for additional homeworks.
Teaching Resources
- M. Pagano and K. Gauvreau Principles of Biostatistics, Chapman and Hall/CRC;
- M. Bland An Introduction to Medical Statistics (English Edition) 4th Edition, Oxford University Press;
- Elmore - Wild - Nelson - Katz Jekel's Epidemiology, Biostatistics, Preventive Medicine, and Public Health, Elsevier - Health Sciences Division, 2020 (in press)
Hygiene and public health
Course syllabus
1. Meaning and use of the epidemiological method
2. Use of health and demographic data in epidemiology:
- Main sources of health and demographic data
- The indicators: meaning and use.
- Health conditions of the female population; birth rate, maternal health and abortion
- Guided analysis of current health data
3. Health status of a population
- Determinants and factors that influence the state of health: biological-natural factors (age, sex and ethnicity), behaviors and lifestyles, physical and social environment, access to health care and services in general
- Socio-economic determinants and inequalities in health and gender
-Methods of descriptive or geographical epidemiology
- Population health profiles
4. Global Health
- Key concepts and definition of global health (GH); evolution of GH from tropical medicine to public health and international health
- Global burden of disease, epidemiological transition and progress in health indicators; Recent phenomena and future of global health
- Social and economic determinants of health
- Sustainable development goals (SDGs); Tuberculosis as a model in global health burden and response
- The World Health Organization and other major actors in GH; International Cooperation; the great challenges: migrations and climate change
Teaching methods
Teaching through slides and blackboard use with a problem-solving approach; practical sessions of exercises; slides and exercises available from Ariel for additional homeworks.
Teaching Resources
- Skolnik R. Global Health 101, 3rd Edition. Jones & Bartlett Learning, 2016
- Slide
- Papers and teaching tools
Hygiene and public health
MED/42 - HYGIENE AND PUBLIC HEALTH - University credits: 1
Lessons: 8 hours
Professor: Amendola Antonella
Medical statistics
MED/01 - MEDICAL STATISTICS - University credits: 3
Practicals: 8 hours
Lessons: 20 hours
Educational website(s)
For meetings, please write an email.
Campus Cascina Rosa, via A. Vanzetti, 5, 20133 Milano - room number 3 - 4